June 2013 Vol 2 No 1

Author (s) :


1). B. S. Sedani
2). K. R. Borisagar
3). T. P. Zinzuwadia

Abstract :


Diversity techniques have been applied to overcome multipath fading in the wireless communication. MIMO is a spatial diversity technique. With multiple transmit and multiple receive antenna, there are many ways to transmit data using coding and STBC and STTC are the techniques for which the performance can be evaluated. In present work Rayleigh Fading channel is considered. The analyzed parameter is probability of error. The necessary factor for wireless communication systems are Spectral efficiency, High transmission data rate, and reliability. Due to multipath, wireless channels suffer from attenuation and fading, without diversity techniques (time diversity, space diversity, frequency diversity). It would be difficult for the receiver to determine the transmitted signal because due to multipath multiple replicas of the transmitted signal will arrive at the receiver at slightly different times. The results taken are under Rayleigh multipath fading and modulation scheme used is BPSK.


No of Downloads : 30

Author (s) :


1). A M. Kothari
2). D G. Kamdar
3). D. A. Doshi

Abstract :


Texture is used in many areas such as remote sensing, surface detection, biomedical image processing etc. Surface metrology with image processing is a challenging task having wide applications in industry. Surface roughness can be evaluated using texture classification approach. In this paper concentrated on Multi-scale multi dimensional technique for classification. Features which are included for classification of surface are Wavelet Statistical Features (WSF) and Wavelet co-occurrence Features (WCF). Important aspect here is appropriate selection of features that characterize the surface. Multi-directional transform for fast and robust feature extraction, where scale and angular decomposition properties are integrated to increase its texture classification performance. Here DWT is used for detecting surface feature. By selecting appropriate features, classification rate can be enhanced.


No of Downloads : 17

Author (s) :


1). A.M. Kothari
2). Pratik S. Kadecha

Abstract :


Many a times there arises situations where we would like to capture panoramic image in a single click. But the digital camera that common man uses has limited field of view. Therefore we cannot capture image in a single click. If we try to capture that image anyhow, then that image may result in a poor resolution. In such conditions, it would never be possible to get a single image. The only solution to this problem is to capture image in such a way that each image contains some overlapping regions. Then using some algorithm, we should be able to find out overlapping regions between the images and merge them in such a way that no one would be able to identify that some processing has been done on these images. This process is called as image mosaicing. In this paper, SIFT based image mosaicing has been shown.


No of Downloads : 22

Author (s) :


1). D. U. Shah
2). Dr. C. H. Vithalani

Abstract :


The need for an efficient technique for compression of images is ever increasing because, the raw images need large amounts of disk space seems to be a big disadvantage during transmission and storage. Even though, there are so many compression techniques already present, a better technique which is faster, memory efficient and simple surely suits the requirements of the user. We have planned to design the hardware design flow of distributed arithmetic (DA) based 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for the proposed image compression algorithm. According to, an effective 2-D DWT will be performed on input image using well-known Distributed Arithmetic (DA) technique, which exploits the LUT-based FPGA structure to build multiplier-less filter bank, the main component in a DWT structure. After computing the DWT, the suitable wavelet co-efficient are selected and then, applied DPCM (Differential pulse-code modulation) that is a transformation for increasing the compressibility of an image. Finally, the transformed image is given to Huffman-encoder that is designed by merging the lowest probable symbols in such a way that, the images will get compressed. For implementation, the DA-based wavelet is modeled in simulink and tested. The verilog source code is developed for the algorithm. All the modules are simulated in Xilinx tool and the final design is verified with verilog test benches. The final design is implemented in Xilinx Atlys Spartan 6 FPGA Kit.


No of Downloads : 40

Author (s) :


1). A M. Kothari
2). Poorvi H. Patel
3). Vandip J. Patel

Abstract :


The two parameters which plays important role in MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), acquired by various imaging modalities are feature extraction and object recognition. These operations will become difficult if the images are corrupted with noise. Denoising is a challenging problem in MRI (acquired as a complex signal ) as the magnitude and phase error both are to be corrected having a signal dependent random noise distribution changing each pixel value in MR image and it is very important for the diagnosis and recognition of cancer, tumor, and tissue properties. After getting denoised MRI, we are registering the multiple MR Images resulting from the unintentional movement or misalignments between consecutive sequences of image. In this paper, we are representing an algorithm for MRI denoising in which we are using non-linear adaptive gradient smoothing for amplitude reconstruction and used FFT and non-linear anisotropic diffusion for phase reconstruction and Affine transformation for registering the MR images. We are using the PSNR (Peak signal to noise ration), MSE (Mean square error) and RMSE (Root mean square error) as performance matrices to measure the quality of denoised MRI .The final result shows that this method is effectively removing the noise while preserving the edge and fine information in the images and by collaging the images through affine registration gives accurate diagnosis results.


No of Downloads : 16

Author (s) :


1). Ankit Ponkia
2). Vivek Unadkat

Abstract :


This paper presents modeling and designing of slotted circular microstrip patch antenna. Circular patch antenna can be create by treating the patch, ground plane, and the material between the two as a circular cavity. As with the rectangular patch, the modes that are supported primarily by a circular Microstrip antenna whose substrate height is small (h << ?) are TMzwhere z is taken perpendicular to the patch. Rectangular and circular patch configurations are commonly used for use in wireless applications due to their low-profile structure. Therefore they are extremely well-suited for embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones, pagers etc. This paper focus on the bandwidth enhancement of microstrip circular patch antenna by introducing a narrow rectangular cross slot at center of circular patch. The design and analysis has been carried out by Finite Element Method based HFSS™ EM Simulator. Results of the simulated structure show wide band operation, with good VSWR/Return Loss, radiation pattern and gain as depicted in the graphs. The far-field radiation pattern along with field distributions are plotted, physical sensitivity of the feed location also studied.


No of Downloads : 27

Author (s) :


1). Dr. C. H. Vithalani
2). S. N. Sampat

Abstract :


Denoising of one dimensional signal using threshold is one of the major applications of wavelet transform. Quadrature Mirror Filter bank method of wavelet transform has many advantages like support for all major orthogonal wavelets, dyadic resolution and adequate retention of energy. Determination of threshold type and threshold value is one of the important tasks in threshold based denoising techniques. Denoising of audio signal is a subjective matter and remains a valid challenge. In this paper, a noisy speech wav file having additive white Gaussian noise is used for denoising to demonstrate features of two stage hard threshold, soft threshold and customized threshold denoising using Quadrature Mirror Filter bank method of wavelet transform. The second stage of denoising uses neighborhood concept where in a set of three wavelet coefficients, threshold is applied to any wavelet coefficient on the bases of the value of the other two neighborhood wavelet coefficients. Eight different denoised files are generated. Various parameters are measured and compared.


No of Downloads : 20

Author (s) :


1). Dr. C. H. Vithalani
2). Mehul R. Naik

Abstract :


The transceivers used in the software defined radio require designing wideband RF hardware covering octave bands. The local oscillator of the mixer should be a wideband frequency synthesizer. Building on the theory of oscillations in the voltage controlled oscillator, the paper presents the concept of negative resistance in the transistor circuit with some inductance at the base. It also provides simulation of this concept. The functioning of the phase-locked loop and how it can be used to synthesize various frequencies in local oscillator is discussed with emphasis on design tradeoffs. Applying the theory and simulation, four different VCO circuits were designed and fabricated for the range covering 300 to 2400 MHz. These VCOs were later used in the design of wideband PLL frequency synthesizer. The results including very good phase noise performance are presented. This approach can be used to design wideband synthesizers used in software defined radio of the base stations in mobile communication.


No of Downloads : 26

Author (s) :


1). H. M. Karkar

Abstract :


Induction motor is widespread in industrial applications due to various methods available for speed control. V/f open loop is most popular due to its simplicity. The main objective is to maintain the speed at fixed reference. Here, the V/f ratio is maintained constant in order to get constant torque over the entire operating range. In this method speed regulation is poor. To investigate the open loop control schemes for controlling induction machine, various result obtained at different V/f ratio. By change in V/f ratio in open loop strategy speed regulation can be improved below rated capacity of three phase induction motor drive. By proper selection of V/f ratio speed regulation can be improved.


No of Downloads : 27

Author (s) :


1). Boris Gara
2). Branimir Jakisc
3). Mile Petrovic
4). Ratko Ivkovic

Abstract :


In this paper, using the analysis of the objective quality of a static image compression algorithm using four compression: JPEG, JPEG2000, EZW and SPIHT. The algorithms were applied to the original image and the filtered image Laplacian, Prewitt and Sobel operator. Compression algorithms are applied with different values of bit rate (bpp). The quality of compressed images is evaluated on the basis of the values of the mean square error of the signal / noise ratio and peak signal / noise ratio. The obtained results were tabulated and graphed presented. According to the graphics given, comparing of compressions from original image has been made to the image filtered by Lapalcian, Prewitt and Sobel operator, and it is established which compressions give the best results according to bit rate and filtrating operator.


No of Downloads : 27

Author (s) :


1). Dr. D. D. Vyas
2). M. N. POPAT

Abstract :


ZigBee is a new emerging wireless technology for low power consumption application within short range, allowing batteries to essentially last for long period of time. This paper focuses on the evaluation of ZigBee network based on different frequency & modulation techniques using Qualnet simulator. The paper also focuses on effect of change in frequency & modulation techniques on performance of ZigBee and to optimize it. Using different modulation techniques and different frequency, depending on the application, we can still improve the performance of ZigBee and reduce the power consumption and increase the Battery life.


No of Downloads : 25

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