National Conference on Emerging Research Trends in Science and Technology

Author (s) :


1). M.M. Makwana, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). H.M. Pedva, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
3). R.P. Rathod, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Renewable Energy, VAWTs, Helical savonius, Field Performance

Abstract :


One of the most promising renewable energy resources for power generation is wind energy, and it has been growing rapidly. The most classification of wind turbines is by its axis of orientation 1) Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and 2) Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). HAWTs are most commonly used for medium to large power production. Maintenance in HAWT is difficult. On other hand VAWTs are smaller in size and they are easily installed near to the ground. They have low maintenance cost, simple in construction. VAWTs are used for domestic areas and residential areas. VAWTs can also be used with street lights.


No of Downloads : 1548

Author (s) :


1). Nirav M. Bhatt, IIT - Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
2). Jay K. Pandya, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


MMIS, multiple injection, pilot injection, HSDI, exhaust gas temperature, cooling water temperature, lubricating oil temperature.

Abstract :


High Emission Standard Requirements with good performance and economic fuel consumption is the basic requirement which has to be fulfilled by modern internal combustion engines. From past many decades, combustion in diesel engine have been a keen interest for researchers due to introduction of electronic fuel injection system which is able to provide more controlled combustion process in the engine. Further, cylinder pressure and temperature can be reduced to a safe limit by application of multiple injection technique. Mechanical Injection system was used for performing multiple injections by doing modification in single cylinder HSDI diesel engine. Exhaust gas, lubricating oil and cooling water temperatures and its effect has been studied by varying injection timing with single injection. Engine with MMIS (Mechanical Multiple Injection System) shows better performance and reduction in overall engine temperature which will reduce the cooling cost of engine. The experimental test cycle follows IS: 10000 (Part VI) – 1980 and results are observed at fixed speed of 3000 rpm.


No of Downloads : 1304

Author (s) :


1). P.N. Antani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
2). R.H. Tavdi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
3). N.H. Antani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
4). P.S. Yadav, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj Gujarat India, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


AFBC Boiler, Bed Material, movable Screening machine design, Drain – Charge of Material, Clinker, safe operation

Abstract :


Currently the method used for screening is unsafe and with full of pollution. So results is increase in losses and reducing overall efficiency. Through manual screening, two types of bad material size were screened, first one was oversize and the other is standard as well as fine particles. The fine particles are melting down in boiler due to which, clinker formation are generated which will lower the heat transfer rate. Frequent drain and charge of bed material for maintaining the boiler inner temperature, will result in requirement of more bad material and this will lead to increase the overall cost of system and also tends to increase the heat losses. After changing the system only standard size, fine, required uniform bad material size speared for again reusing it. So now new system is more flexible, reliable, less time consuming, required less man power and increase indirectly boiler efficiency.


No of Downloads : 22

Author (s) :


1). U.S. Soni, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
2). B.M. Padhiyar, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
3). S.M. Singh, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
4). R.B. Soni, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


3D printing, FDM, Extruder, Hot End, Filament

Abstract :


3D printing is a revolutionary new age technology in the manufacturing sector. The parts which cannot be fabricated by conventional methods can easily be manufactured by 3D printing. This article incorporates the critical review of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), a well-established 3D printing technology. Various parts of FDM are exhaustively described. However, there are some issues in existing printer with regards to time consumption and quality of the printed object. The extruder is one of the preferred topics of research nowadays. There are many kinds of extruder available in the market, choosing the particular extruder and nozzle may enhance the properties of the printed object. Current scenario of 3D printing technology across the world has also been described.


No of Downloads : 2017

Author (s) :


1). Kalyani B. Panigrahi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Karishma R. Advani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). Hiral S. Mehta, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Geothermal, Biomass, Energy per capita, Green Energy, GHG

Abstract :


Energy consumption has always played a very important role in the social and economic progress of a country. Energy consumption can be managed by two factors energy requirement and energy conservation. Both these factors are influenced by the use of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Due to easy availability and cheaper price, conventional methods had always been opted, but as the combustion of fossil fuels had posed threats to the environment as well as getting exhaustible after energy extraction, focus of many countries has been shifted to cleaner and greener options which include energy extraction from various non-renewable resources such as Solar, Wind, Biomass and Geothermal. This paper focuses on the geothermal potential of our country. The researches that had been done in the identification of geothermal regions and various activities undertaken in those regions to develop Geothermal Energy extraction in India as well as comparison of other sources of green energy has also been considered.


No of Downloads : 1438

Author (s) :


1). M.V. Gorasiya, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
2). R.P. Rathod, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
3). H.D. Joshi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Helical gear design, Genetic algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization Technique (PSO) and Simulated annealing

Abstract :


Gears are most effective components in power transmission systems. The gears system is frequently used to transfer power with high accuracy as compare to others system. Now a day’s development in technology are going to be very fast with less time. But various complexion in gear design will challenge to development technology. It is challenge to solve because it contains number of objectives and variables. Therefore, to face such challenge robust optimization methods will be beneficial to get optimal solution. Genetic algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization Technique (PSO) and Simulated annealing can be helpful to overcome such difficulty using MATLAB. By comparing results of this three methods we can conclude best Technique for optimization of Gear design. Production of gear will be done by hobbing process using cast iron as a gear material. Testing of gear will be done on gear test rig for the performance of gear designs. With the help of optical microscope tooth performance will going to be analyses. Results can be useful to select optimum method for gear design with better accuracy and other Required performance.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Ravilal H. Prajapati, Tolani F.G. Polytechnic, Gandhidham, Adipur, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


high pressure injection, renewable energy resources, flame propagation, turbulence, knock resistance, equivalent ratio.

Abstract :


Production of hydrogen is costly, CNG is widely available and mixture of hydrogen-CNG is economical because of higher fraction of CNG in mixture. This is a short time substitute to current fissile fuels, as greenhouse emission may be reduced. Hydrogen and CNG with a combination of EGR give high efficiency, law emission like NOx, COx, and HC, Wide flammability range. However, backfire and knock produce, law BSFC, high BTE and high power achieved by mixing of more hydrogen with air intake. The effect of BDTC on performance of engine efficiency, emission and knocking is studied.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Hirak Naik, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Umrakh, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
2). Misal Gandhi, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Umrakh, Gujarat, India
3). Milan Patel, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Umrakh, Gujarat, India
4). Rikesh Prajapati, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Umrakh, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Centrifugal Force, Gravity Die Casting, Cooling rate, Rotational speed, Rotational time.

Abstract :


The current review is about to focus on the effects of centrifugal forces and rotational speeds as well as metal flow in casting on microstructures and mechanical properties of different alloy formed under different casting conditions on graphite mold in centrifugal casting. Various experiments with different mold rotating rates are conducted by different researcher. As a result the researcher had concluded that grain size and lamellar thickness will decrease with increase in centrifugal force or decrease in casting modulus, while tensile strengths are considerably enhanced. From the experiments researcher had found that there should be some relationship between the structure and cooling rate because grain size or thickness in two molds shows effect with the cooling rate. The solidification rate affects the microstructure and a mechanical property as well as the grain size is depended on it. Rate of solidification can be estimated by measuring grain size at different cooling rate in gravity die casting on different rotational speeds.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). Grusha Kalyan, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Karan Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Ductile iron pipe, centrifugal casting, general defects in casting, process parameters-Liquid metal Temperature, Mould Rotational speed, Inoculation Quantity, Optimization.

Abstract :


This paper has mainly focus on to minimize the casting defects such as, blow holes, ovality, pinhole porosity, hot tears, shrinkage cavity, etc. specially, in smaller diameter ductile iron pipes from 80 mm diameter to 200 mm diameter, these defects are very common and complicate to eliminate. Defects can be reduced or mostly eliminated by optimizing centrifugal casing process parameters. Process parameter which improves the quality and produces a defect free product is important to achieve. In this paper the process parameters which can be analyzed are Liquid Metal Temperature, casting mould rotational speed, inoculation powder quantity and inlet cooling water flow rate. These parameters are analyzed and optimized to reduce the casting defects and improve the quality of the smaller diameter ductile iron pipes.


No of Downloads : 8

Author (s) :


1). Karan Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Ductile iron pipe, Centrifugal casting, Finite Element Analysis, FLUENT, Temperature Distribution, Mould filling process, Solidification rate.

Abstract :


Pipes which are famous with the name “Ductile iron pipes” are casted by using Centrifugal casting Method. Mould filling process is much critical in centrifugal casing as velocity of metal is largely depends on temperature which varies continuously and difficult to control. Also, manufacturing of ductile iron pipe is more complex as liquid metal should be poured in the rotating mould which also travels in longitude direction. With the use of Finite element analysis, FLUENT and three dimensional models to simulate liquefied metal and mould surface, temperature distribution between liquid metal and mould inner wall thickness at each point throughout the length of ductile iron pipe can be analyzed. The feasibility of FULENT to use 3D centrifugal casting process can be studied. Fluctuation of Molten metal along the length of the pipe can be studied. Temperature Distribution during the metal filling process from the start to end of the ductile iron pipe casting can be analysed. This paper suggest the best mould filling condition which maximize the production rate and minimize rejection levels by which a better quality defect-less pipes can be manufactured. By proper and uniform solidification, required microstructure can be achieved which helps to maximize the ductility of the casted pipes.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Brijesh P. Ghadiya, Shree Swami Atmanand Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India
2). Ravindra Rathod, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Cooling Load, Screw Chiiler (S.C.); Magnetic chiller (M.C.); Free Cooling(F.C.); Thermal Energy Storage Tank(TES);Tonnes of Refrigeration(TR).

Abstract :


Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD) and Solar Heat Gain Factor (SHGF ) methods which are well-known cooling or heating load estimation procedures used in this paper to predict the hourly and daily average cooling and heating load through different types of walls, roofs, fenestration ,occupancy and equipment for a building of single wall construction. As per the cooling load requirements of a building a comparative analysis for various chiller systems of different combinations such as water based screw chiller, magnetic chiller and magnetic chiller with free cooling and each system with thermal energy storage tank and without thermal energy storage tank is carried out in order to evaluate yearly operating cost. By this comparison between various options a best option for a building cooling is a magnetic chiller with free cooling and thermal storage tank.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). R.B. Soni, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). S.S. Pande, Marwadi University - Rajkot, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Additive Manufacturing, Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Selective Laser Melting, Direct Metal Laser Sintering.

Abstract :


Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a kind of novel production process of making structures by metal powder with the help of laser power. The current study reflects the review of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Techniques (LPBF) such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) which are the prominent processes in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The detailed working, along with the applications and challenges of the process with current scenario has also been discussed.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). S.G. Rana, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


PEMFC, Water Management, Humidification, Current density, Fuel Cell Performance.

Abstract :


This review is mainly focused on water management in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Good proton conductivity can be maintained by supplying inlet gases at high relative humidity (RH) to prevent drying or dehydration of the membrane. On the contrary, increased amount of water that is generated internally by oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode cause flooding hindering higher mass transport. Water management is important to achieve required performance and durability from PEMFCs. Hence, the crucial problem of water management is to achieve an equilibrium between membrane drying and liquid water flooding to ensure a high performance level and to avoid fuel cell degradation.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). P.N. Antani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
2). R.H. Tavdi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
3). P.S. Yadav, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj Gujarat India, Gujarat, India
4). S.G. Rana, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Cooling tower, Induced Draft, WBT, Casing, Evaporation Loss, Eliminators, L/G Ratio and Basin.

Abstract :


Cooling tower plays very important role in power plants and chemical industries. Main function of cooling tower is to cool down inlet water from process and removes heat into the surrounding. It represents a relatively dependable and economical means of rejecting low-grade heat from cooling water. To fill up again water lost to evaporation the make-up water source is used. The factors that are affecting the cooling tower performances (as water inlet - outlet temperature, wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature and relative humidity). Based on the requirement of industry according to that it will use induced, forced and natural draft cooling tower. In induced draft cooling tower air is sucked bottom part of the cooling tower through a big fan. The cooling of water happens because of air humidification. The loss of heat by water is heat added by air. The important feature in the cooling towers is water circulation. Cooling tower effectiveness depends on air and water and water temperature flow rate. A cooling tower is act like a heat transfer device which is reject heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a minor temperature. Cooling towers may also use the water evaporation to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers.


No of Downloads : 28

Author (s) :


1). Ravi K. Jethi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Nagesh S. Chaudhari, Vishal Oil and Energy Ltd., Karaikkal, Tamil Nadu India
3). Ankit J. Patel, Indian Rayon, Veraval, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Potable Water, Distillation, Brackish water, Evaporation, Condense, SS-SS, TDS, PPM.

Abstract :


The water and the vitality are the two most basic things for the maintaining of life. Just under 1% water is accessible for the general public for coordinate use, out of which the greatest portion has been contaminated due to non-sensible modern advancements. A sunlight based still is a gadget which can take care of the issue of consumable water without utilizing the high review vitality. A review has been given in this paper of prologue to sun oriented still with a view to clarify the guideline and the component of task The impact of different parameters administering the task of sun oriented still is likewise surveyed in a view to upgrade operational productivity. Supply of drinking water is a noteworthy issue in immature and in some creating nations. The utilization of sun based vitality for desalination design was one of the primary procedures created for delivering crisp water from salt water. The procedure depends on the utilization of sunlight based warm vitality to vanish water in this way isolating unadulterated water from salt water. The sun powered stills are utilized as a decent strategy for getting the new water for even little scale request as a result of financial and specialized points of interest as it utilizes the modest innovation including the material costs and assembling. Henceforth to expand the execution of sunlight based still it is important to show and research the impact of various parameters as gathering spread.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Raghav Vashi, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Umrakh, Gujarat, India
2). Misal Gandhi, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Umrakh, Gujarat, India
3). Piyush Jain, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Gujarat, India
4). Vivek Mishra, S.N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Umrakh, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


hybrid aluminum matrix composite, Silicon Carbide (Sic), Graphite (Gr), Stir casting, mechanical properties

Abstract :


The present review paper focus on mechanical properties of hybrid metal matrix composites (HAMCs) reinforced by silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr). The stir casting process utilized for production of varying reinforcement’s content in HAMCs. By adding reinforcements in to Aluminum material will improve mechanical properties like hardness, tensile-strength, and toughness. With percentage amount of Sic increased will resulted in to decrease the ductility as well increase the porosity into the composites.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). M.M. Pitamberwala, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). B.R. Rehani, M.S. University - Baroda, Baroda, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Dispersion, Mechanical Alloying, Powder Metallurgy

Abstract :


Dispersed Reinforced Composites have been extensively employed in the automotive industries to form artifacts such as internal combustion and external combustion engines components (connecting rods, frames & wheels, cylinder liners, etc.), rocket motor components, structural materials for space platform etc. But in the field of engineering always there is need for advancement, development and growth i.e. it requires materials stronger, lighter, less expensive and desirably efficient. The review article will attempt to synthesis and characterize advanced materials – Dispersion Strengthened hybrid Nano-composite of pure Aluminum matrix reinforced with hard and soft phases combining physical, mechanical and tribological properties followed up by the Powder Metallurgy route (Nano-crystallite Dispersion phase by Mechanical alloying processing) leading to major importance, predominantly in automotive and aerospace sectors.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). L.D. Kothivar, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). R.P. Rathod, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Tadpole, Reverse Trike, Leaning Reverse trike

Abstract :


Riding a two wheeler at the turn is most joyful experience. But due to Weather condition, Indian Roads conditions becomes Risky. Most frequent accidents happen because of a skid or rollover. So reverse trike eliminate that factor and Provide More Safety with Comfortable and same experience of ride


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). H.S. Mehta, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). K.B. Panigrahi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). K.R. Advani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Multi objective optimization, Genetic Algorithm, wind farm, wind energy

Abstract :


In order to solve the real life problems optimization algorithms are used. As the use of non-renewable products concerns the environment and results in depletion of such products therefore renewable energy seems to be an alternative. Multi objective optimization problems are complex in solving as the objectives out coming from optimization conflict internally, therefore numerous algorithms applied in solving the problems of optimizing multi objective optimization problems have been invented. In this paper an introduction to multi objective optimization algorithms or techniques is given. Furthermore, the application of these optimization techniques in wind farm is studied.


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). H.K. Bhatt, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). P. Bhavnani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). S. Prajapati, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Accuracy, machining operation, depth of cut, speed, feed.

Abstract :


Grinding might well be oldest method of working with finishing different materials like Cast Iron, Steels, stainless steels, carbon steel etc. In welding criteria, it also used for providing V and U shape on work piece. Super finishing operation also carried out with the grinding process. Present day grinding process high performance and are capable of grinding work piece to high accuracy and at a very high production rate. It can produce crankshaft of engines, splined shafts, machine tool guide ways, gears, threads, and reshaping of tools. The parameters to be considered in grinding process for achieving minimum surface roughness values i.e. cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and grain size for both tool and work material, physical properties of material, grit size for grinding tool, thermal effect etc.


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). Sandip Kumar, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Hardik K. Bhatt, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


surface finishing, weight reduction, FEA static stiffness, dynamic characteristic

Abstract :


The planer machine is one of the most widely used industrial equipment for Surface finishing .The posterior element of a certain Machine is related to the optimization for planer machine. In which three dimensional modeling and designing are used to calculation of accurate weight of bed and also finite element analysis is use to research static characteristics before and after weight-reduction. Composite material will be also used for reducing weight of planer machine.


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). Vishvesh I. Solanki, Noble Group of Institutions, Junagadh, Gujarat, India
2). Pranav Bhatt, Noble Group of Institutions, Junagadh, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Go kart chassis

Abstract :


Go kart is popular hobby sports in America and Europe, it was initially made in us in 1950 and then other country followed this carting culture. In India go kart is making huge wave, many recesses is been conducted. The important criteria to be consider while designing kart is its chassis it does not have suspension so all the load should be absorb by chassis alone without deflecting unduly, the rigidity and strength of the chassis should be consider too much of rigidity will reduce the strength of the chassis, the material used is AISI 1020 .different impact test is conducted and final optimum diameter (D) and thickness (T) is obtain using CAE toll and validate by applying formula for different values.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Tushar Ashokkumar Makvana, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. Akash Pandey, M.S. University - Baroda, Baroda, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, Reliability, Risk Management, Automotive industry, PFMEA, DFMEA

Abstract :


Product quality planning and assessment are significant to guarantee that a product meets the requirements of the buyer and that it fulfills all safety and regulatory requirements. A foremost key element to success is to handle and decrease risk effectively throughout the product’s life cycle. To decrease risk, it is essential to identify risk, evaluate the associated potential consequences and their probability, and then estimate the probable risk. A many of analysis techniques, can be used. These techniques include Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).This paper present on identification of operations which has high risk during the assembling process. In identification of operation as per organization scenario it was require following step by step procedure. Decision Matrix provide decision of PFMEA requirement for particular operation Then it was need to carrying out analysis using Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) to reduce risk. To measure riskiness of operation process by Risk Priority Number (RPN) this is multiplication of severity, occurrence and detection code. If it is found high risk then take action on that operation to reduce Risk Priority Number (RPN).For PFMEA various standards like SAE, AIAG etc…give the guideline for analysis, organization has to follow these guideline.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). V.A. Bavisiya, M.S. University - Baroda, Baroda, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


FDM, 3D Printer, Nozzle, Filament

Abstract :


With help of CAD software 3D printer used to make rapid prototyping of the real one by generating 3D design. 2D printing uses 2 direction for making 2d paper design where third axis is added in the 3D printing to make real or rapid prototyping design. This paper give general idea about the nozzle of the 3D printer and the filament material used in printing which is the main aspect of the 3D printer and its relative motion is very important. The history of the 3D printer is also given in this paper and basic method and basic process is given. Different material of filament and different material of nozzle is given in this paper and also combination of it is also mention.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). A.K. Tank, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). J.B. Parmar, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). G.S. Soni, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
4). V.L. Bhimani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Heat pipe, Nano fluid, Thermal performance

Abstract :


Heat pipe is a compact and efficient device widely used in large number of thermal applications to transfer heat energy. Many researchers have carried out experiment on application of various Nano fluids as working medium in heat pipe due to their superior thermo-physical properties. The significant improvement in thermal performance of heat pipe can be archived by using Nano fluids. However, it is depends on type of nanoparticle and their concentration in base fluid as well as particle size. Present paper aim to provide review on effect of various Nano fluids on thermal efficiency of heat pipe.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Hiral S. Mehta, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Karishma R. Advani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). Kalyani B. Panigrahi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Mechanical joining, lightweight car body, self-pierce riveting, clinching, local conditioning

Abstract :


This paper reviews different mechanical joining techniques that can be used as a substitute for established traditional joining methods such as laser welding, brazing or resistance spot welding, utilized mainly in the manufacturing of lightweight car body parts. Mechanical Joining processes are specifically used to join materials having different mechanical properties, surface coatings and different thicknesses. Various ferrous and non-ferrous materials can also be joined by a mechanical joining technique. Considerable reduction in the weight of vehicles result in subsequent decrease in fuel consumption of the vehicle, therefore materials such as aluminum alloy sheets and high strength steels are used for manufacturing of automobile body panels. The challenges faced by the manufacturing industry involves the manufacturing of a car which is lightweight but at the same time, is rigid and crash-stable, making it structurally strong, which is reasonable considering large-scale production. This paper reviews & summarizes recent developments for suitable joining technologies.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). Shivang M. Vyas, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Hemanshu D. Joshi, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Spherical Pressure Vessel, Design and Analysis, Optimization, Mechanical Stresses

Abstract :


In pressure vessels inside pressure is generally higher than the ambient pressure. The fluid inside vessel may undergo a change in state as in the case of steam boiler or may combine with other reagent as in the case of chemical reactor. Pressure induces the stress on the pressure vessel wall also nozzles, for inlet and outlet of fluid, causes the higher discontinuity in stress. Analysis of spherical pressure vessel is carried out as per ASME Code, further analysis and optimization is done. The role of stiffeners plays in the structural stability (von-mises stress and deformation) is to be analyzed by using structural analysis. Analysis result is needed to be verified with the experimental results for validation purpose. Geometries namely cylindrical pressure vessels and spherical pressure vessels are examined. The walls of an ideal thin wall pressure vessel act as a membrane. A sphere is the optimal geometry for a closed pressure vessel in the sense of being the most structurally efficient shape. A cylindrical vessel is somewhat less efficient for two reasons: (a) the wall stresses vary with direction, (b) closure by end caps can alter significantly the ideal membrane state, requiring additional local reinforcements 2. However the cylindrical shape may be more convenient to fabricate and transport. Current study involves the heat transfer in a spherical pressure vessel which is acted by the internal pressure which is generated by the fluid inside the sphere. Stress which is acted within the sphere is determined using finite element analysis technique using analysis software.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). Utsav C. Gor, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). R. P. Nayak, Orissa Engineering College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, India

Keywords :


Conveyor Chain, Furnace, Material Handling System

Abstract :


The main aim of this review paper is that on the most of the time conveyor chain link is under tension & highest temperature operation which causes failure of chain link which is the major problem for industries. Reason of this failure are improper design or wrong material selection. It is important to study the effects of the parameters. All these parameters can be considered simultaneously and chain link design properly. In furnace operation, chain link conveyors are widely used to transport goods as a material handling system. Chain conveyor designed to convey wide variety of powdery, granular, lumpy bulk materials. Now a days high demand rate of quantity of material to be transported in minimum amount of time for this chain conveyor needs to redesign and increase the load carrying capacity and also Chain links have to deal with different temperature and loading conditions. These causes wear & tear of components of chains and hence unexpected failure occurred and it goes to costly production.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). H.R. Barot, Shankarisnh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology - Vasna, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
2). M.V. Gorasiya, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Gujarat, India
3). J.K. Pandya, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
4). H.K. Bhatt, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research - Kutch, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


I. C. Engine, VCR System, Ammonia Refrigerant and Air Conditioning

Abstract :


We all uses car air conditioning system in the cars. Always we feel that whenever we start the AC the power of the IC engine suddenly divided in two parts, one of which is used to rotate the wheel and 18% is used for air conditioning. Ultimately it effects on the mechanical efficiency of the engine and also overall efficiency of the car. Mileage is also decreased. So we thought that can we change this system little bit? We consider all the parameters and found that we can remove compressor and install heat exchanger instead of compressor. There is also invention for this problem which is vapor absorption system in which pump is used instead of compressor and ammonia is used as a refrigerant. But also there is power consumption due to pump. We want to completely eliminate the power consumption by using exhaust gases of IC engine. What compressor works in the VCR system that we all know. It changes the state of gas saturated gas to the superheated gas. And also it increases the pressure of the gas so that it can reject the heat energy into the atmosphere. So we are going to change the state of refrigerant by giving heat in means of solar heat. We will use solar energy and make the system free from conventional energy.


No of Downloads : 6

Author (s) :


1). Hardiksinh G. Jadeja, M.S. University - Baroda, Baroda, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Turbofan, optimum bypass ratio, C / FORTRAN / MATLAB

Abstract :


Normal aircraft is depend on air-breathing jet propulsion systems works on open joules/Brayton cycle that uses moving gases as substances to transmit energy from one form to other through combustion chamber to turbine. Whole development of the aviation-vehicle, improved to the engine performance and decrement in emission of pollutants. Current research focus on a parametric analysis (on design analysis) of a turbofan engine cycle with optimum bypass ratio. The main goal of this research is to use our required parameters as aviation vehicle’s Mach number, compressor pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio and fan bypass ratio with limiting parameters such as turbine inlet temperature of burned gases and find out its effect on performance parameters of engine such as propulsive force (thrust), isentropic efficiency, polytrophic efficiency, overall efficiency and fuel consumption. Outcome of focused research may provide guidance in the performance characteristics of various engine components which can be used to develop, analyses, design, and optimum utilization of sources of system for better performance of turbofan engines.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Kartik Thakor, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat, University, Patan, Gujarat, India
2). Sujay Dutta, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Geographic Information System (GIS), Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Soil Nutrients Indices (SNI), Spatial Distribution, Macronutrients.

Abstract :


GIS based soil fertility mapping can provide a cost effective strategy for an effective nutrient management. For this purpose soil macronutrient datasets of Sabarkantha (330 samples) and Anand district (203 samples) were obtained in spreadsheet format from Anand Agriculture University, Gujarat,. Further, generated spatial distribution maps of macronutrients using IDW interpolation technique of GIS. Range and average variability status also estimated using Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis tool of ArcGIS10. Across Sabarkantha district available macronutrients viz. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium ranged from 100 – 283, 16 – 116 and 79 – 1329 kg ha-1 with mean value of 161, 48 and 355 kg ha-1 respectively. While across Anand district available macronutrients viz. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium ranged from 63 – 282, 24 – 586 and 117 – 1542 kg ha-1 with mean value of 155, 138 and 546 kg ha-1 respectively. Soil Nutrients Indices evaluate fertility class of soil. The results of SNI revealed low fertility class of Nitrogen and higher fertility class of Potassium across Sabarkantha and Anand district of Gujarat, State, India. SNI also revealed medium fertility class of Phosphorus across Sabarkantha district while across Anand district SNI revealed higher fertility class of Phosphorus. Further on the basis of spatial distribution maps and SNI recommended fertilizer doses to improve crop productivity across Sabarkantha and Anand district of Gujarat, State, India.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Kiran Kishor Hirani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera Kutch, Kutch, Gujarat, India
2). Prakash Valji Hirani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera Kutch, Kutch, Gujarat, India
3). Ruchit Mahesh Dabasiya, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera Kutch, Kutch, Gujarat, India
4). Rushikesh Jadavji Dabasia, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera Kutch, Kutch, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Uplift Bridge Without Discontinuity, Bi-Mechanism Bridge, Hydraulic Bridge, Suspension Bridge, Improvise Technique for Bridge, Flood Region.

Abstract :


The bridge consists of both the Hydraulic jack at the bottom of bridge deck and also it is supported by suspension cables on top of it. It will be working with the help of both, the hydraulic jack and the cables hence it’s also called a Bi-Mechanism bridge. They both are provided so that in case if anyone of them is failed; another system is there to handle it. This design will ensure the weight on the bridge will be evenly distributed. After the bridge is lifted up only the permissible vehicles can be allowed to cross the bridge and the weighing machine can be provided at the entrance so that the permissible weighted vehicles are only allowed to pass. In our design, we feel that the geometric shapes and the dimensions we chose will greatly affect the outcome of our bridge. We expect this bridge to hold a great amount of weight because of the cylinders are reinforced and backed up by one another. The main advantage of this solution is that the when bridge is uplifted there is continuity to the decks and the traffic flow will remain as it is and there would be no stoppage of vehicle.


No of Downloads : 11

Author (s) :


1). Urvi Rathod, CGPIT, Bardoli, Gujarat, India
2). Helly Mehta, CGPIT, Bardoli, Gujarat, India
3). Palak Trivedi, CGPIT, Bardoli, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Region, Imbalance, Inequalities,Disparities

Abstract :


Most of the countries of the world are faced with the problem of regional imbalances and regional inequalities. In most of the other developed countries as well regional inequalities and imbalances are present in substantial proportions. What differentiates the problem of the underdeveloped countries from that of the developed countries is the fact that whereas in the latter all inhabitants have an assured minimum level of subsistence and the concern of lagging regions is just to 'catch up' with the leading regions, in the former the question before the lagging regions is a more basic one, i.e. how to provide a minimum level of subsistence to-their teeming millions.


No of Downloads : 8

Author (s) :


1). K. D. Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Kutch, Gujarat, India
2). N. K. Prajapati, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Kutch, Gujarat, India
3). N. D. Vadher, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, kutch, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Cylindrical Shell, Buckling, Axially compression force, Imperfections, FEM

Abstract :


Thin cylindrical shell has wide application in many engineering field. Also its load carrying capacity is decided as per its buckling strength which depends strongly on imperfection present in shell. One of the most important design considerations for axially loaded cylindrical shell is buckling. Buckling is characterized by sudden failure of structural member subjected to high compressive stress. The present paper reviews the literature related to the buckling failure of shell due to different types of geometrical imperfections like different location of opening, different shape and size of opening, dents, etc. The study of this will help to better understand the behavior of thin shell under different types of imperfections.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). N. K. Prajapati, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Kutch, Gujarat, India
2). K. D. Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Kutch, Gujarat, India
3). K. A. Gbolagade, University for Development Studies, Navrongo, Ghana
4). K. V. Maheshwari, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Kutch, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Self-healing Properties, Fungi, Fungus concrete.

Abstract :


Concrete is homogeneous material in which cracks formation is very common phenomena in infrastructures. In this cracks water, CO2, and other chemical are easily interred. Hence durability, strength and corrosion of reinforcement is affected. It is very costly to repair this type of micro-cracks by using traditional method compared to self-healing concrete. Fungi can be used as self-healing agent and it also improves the structural properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, water permeability and durability of the normal concrete which can be found by the performing different type of experiment on some specimens have different sizes used by different researchers for their study of fungus concrete in comparison with the conventional concrete.


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). Hetal K. Gorasiya, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, kutch, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Hollow Plastic Balls; hardened properties; thermal insulation; Literature review.

Abstract :


Concrete plays the key role and large quantum of concrete is being utilized in every construction field. On the other hand use of plastic is also increasing day by day. Effective ways to recycle & reuse of plastic are being formulated now a days. This paper presents a literature review on Bubble Deck Slab Using Hollow Plastic Balls. The use of Hollow Plastic Balls in slab will reduce dead weight of slab and further it leads reduction in dead load of structure. As we know the structure with less dead load have better seismic performance so structure constructed using bubble deck slab will have better seismic performance. Analysis on workability properties and hardened properties will be carried out which will be helpful to the construction industry.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Viral Pandya, Marwadi Education Foundation, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Tejpal Goda, Marwadi Education Foundation, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
3). Prof. A. N. Desai, BVM college, Anand, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Cubi linear element, Non-conforming element, Finite element method, Eight-nodded element

Abstract :


Many researchers have explored the area of finite element method (FEM) particularly in conforming element which is applicable to develop different meshing pattern in real structures. Here, an element having combination of 4 nodes on x-axis and 2 nodes on y-axis is considered. The combination of 8 nodded rectangular non-conforming element can be termed as cubi-linear element. Here study of cubi-linear element will be studied and after that it will be applied to analyse member with the help of computer program which is aim of the study. And hence will able to know the behaviour of cubi-linear element with different results in terms of convergence rate and accuracy for primary and secondary unknown.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). Bhakti .N. Kataria, T.F.G. Polytechnic, Gandhidham, Gujarat, India
2). Mamta L Prajapati, T.F.G. Polytechnic, Gandhidham, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


abundance, ecosystem, flora, fauna.

Abstract :


In today modern arena, use of plastic in every field is maximum due to its suitability, durability, comfortability which have resulted into various pollution in our environment also it takes more than 1000 years to disintegrate from ecosystem so plastic waste has become curse to flora and fauna on the earth, also eco-system and our green environment have become unbalanced due to abundance use of plastic. In our project, we are using plastic waste in concrete by 1%, 2%, 5%, and 7% thus contributing to saving our environment resulting with green revolution. The average compressive strength of Concrete with the addition of 2% plastic waste for is 20.46MPa, for 5% is 16.3MPa, And for 7% is15.53MPa respectively. From the result, 2% of waste results in maximum strength.


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). Prof. Jalpa M Patel, G.H.Patel College of Engineering &Technology, V. V. Nagar, Gujarat, India
2). Prof. Alpesh K Sankhat, G.H.Patel College of Engineering &Technology, V. V. Nagar, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Traffic conflicts, island, rotery intersection, 3 legged.

Abstract :


A traffic conflict, in transportation engineering, is an event involving two or more moving vehicles approaching each other in a traffic flow situation in such a way that a traffic collision would ensue unless at least one of the vehicles performs an emergency maneuver. The traffic conflicts can occur due to merging of vehicle movements into another traffic stream, by crossing or by diverging from the existing traffic stream. The numbers and distributions of different types of traffic conflict points are often used to avoid the collision at intersections by applying appropriate solution like islands or channelized intersection. To determine the conflicts points at any intersection, virtual lanes are used. Solving the traffic conflict can enhance the traffic flow at the intersection and hence reduce the delay as well as delay.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Himanshu Maniyar, C.U.Shah College of Commerce,Management and Computer Education, Wadhwan, Gujarat, India
2). Dr. H.B.Bhadka, C.U.Shah University, Wadhwan, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Education Data mining, Classification, Student Performance, Decision Tree

Abstract :


Data mining techniques refers to the set of algorithms which can be used to extract information from the data. With the growing world of digitalization, it is necessary to process data so that required information can be extracted and used for further analysis. Students performances are always been to be a point to worry for the teachers and parents. What if someday, we can systematically predict their future performances based on their past and present performance data? This challenging issue has been tried to be solved by many researchers using various data mining techniques. This survey discusses what is data mining is and how it can be used in the field of education, leading to the new era of data analytics called Education Data Mining.


No of Downloads : 25

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Smit Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Ms. Jipsy Somaiya, HJD-ITER, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Software Defined Networking, Fault Tolerance, Switch Migration, Leader Election, Load Balancing, Data Plane, Control Plane.

Abstract :


Lack of Flexibility, Centralized Control and Cost are such limitations of traditional network. Software Defined Networking is a new way to deal with these issues of traditional networking. SDN decouples the main two functions of a traditional network viz. Packet Switching and Routing. In SDN switch is responsible to forward packets only without any concern about routing decisions or any security checks. Control plane is responsible for Routing Decisions. Distributed SDN solve issues of availability and scalability from which centralized or single control plane suffers from. For any network to work smoothly Fault Tolerance and Load balancing are the key features. In this paper, we have described a Leader Election Algorithm to provide Fault Tolerance and A Switch Migration Algorithm for Load Balancing to SDN Control Plane.


No of Downloads : 6

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Manisha Vorani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Big Data, Characteristics, Big Data Analytics, Hadoop, Challenges, Applications.

Abstract :


Big data refers to any collection of massive data sets so huge and complicated that traditional data-processing applications are inadequate to deal with them. Big data analytics is assumed as the technique of examining such a massive data sets to uncover hidden patterns, secret correlations, customer preferences and other information that is useful in decision making. It is the use of advanced analytics tool to process huge and varied information with different types of contents. Challenges to big data analytics includes data storage and quality, data analysis, visual representation of data, various sources of data, data privacy etc. The complexity big data is needs new techniques, algorithms, and analytics to manage it and extract value and hidden data from it. Hadoop is the core platform for structuring big data, and it solves the difficulties of storing, analyzing and visualizing for any processes or results and making it useful for analytics functions.


No of Downloads : 6

Author (s) :


1). Dr. Ramji M. Makwana, E-vision InfoTech Ltd, Rajkot Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Chintan B Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Intelligent Video Surveillance System (IVS), Object Detection-classification, Object Tracking, Behavior Analysis

Abstract :


Intelligent Video Surveillance system (IVS) has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. IVS is able to automatically analyze image, video or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. It includes events in the scene like static and moving object detection, video tracking to understand the same. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent video surveillance system for human behavior analysis. Human behavior analysis although crucial, highly challenging task. Now a day’s research is going on to track and recognize objects and also human motion from videos. The objective of this survey paper is to discuss regarding different methods of video surveillance system and research carried out for that methods. The processing step of video surveillance system includes object detection, object classification, object tracking, action recognition and behavior analysis. Further these methods will be useful to identify abnormal activity detection, abnormal behavior and suspicious activity with alarm triggering.


No of Downloads : 5

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Smit Thacker, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Ms. Manisha Vorani, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). Ms. Urmi Gadhavi, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Smart Parking, IOT, Mobile Application, ultrasonic sensor, raspberry pi.

Abstract :


Nowadays, the concept of smart cities has gained popularity. With the invention of IOT the concept of smart city currently appears to be accomplishable. IOT is addressing the transportation issues like, traffic congestion, restricted car parking facilities and road safety for the Smart city. In our paper, we have presented an IOT based smart Parking System. The System consists of an IOT module that consists of microprocessor, analog digital devices and wireless unit that used to monitor and signalize the availability of vacant parking slots. A user is provided with mobile application that enables a user to visualize the availability of parking slot and book a parking slot consequently. It involves using inexpensive sensors, actuators, real-time data collection, and mobile-phone-enabled automatic payment systems that enable people to book parking slot in advance or very accurately predict wherever they'll probably find a vacant spot.


No of Downloads : 10

Author (s) :


1). Ms.Chandini Sandupalli, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Mr.Ravikant Saini, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
3). Mr.Bhavnik Solanki, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Bot, Botnet, Botmaster, Command and control server.

Abstract :


The expanding development of Internet utilization, digital violations has been expanding at an Alarming rate and has turned out to be most productive criminal movement. Now a days Botnets are emerging as the most serious cyber threat in the cyber world. Botnet is a developing risk to the digital security and due to the presence of Command and Control Server (C&CServer) it is unsafe in contrast with all other malware attacks. Botnets can also be leased to motivate the cybercriminal activities. Botmaster is the one who first creates a large network of bots under him by seeking for vulnerable devices connected in the internet to form the Botnet. Each infected host is termed as a bot. Botmaster controls all the bots through Command and Control(C&C) Server. The bots works accordingly to the commands sent by the bot master. Botnet can be used to perform DDOS attack, steal the data and allow the attackers to access the remote devices. India ranks third among botnet infected developing countries as per Symantec’s Internet Security Threat Report. On the other hand many different techniques and algorithms have been introduced to detect botnet. This review paper holds the information of history of Botnet, Various Botnet attacks, architecture of botnets, botnet detection techniques and some measures that would prevent your devices from botnet attacks.


No of Downloads : 14

Author (s) :


1). Mr. U. R. Rathor, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. H. D. Chande, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Text Representation, Text Mining, Online Social Networking, emotion mining, NLP, Machine Learning.

Abstract :


Nowadays use of individual’s are so much engaged in online activities most of their online time are Social Networking interaction. They also share their thoughts, emotions and feelings using online medium. In this paper, a review is done for how they are emotional interacting in social media networks, and then using these characteristics to discriminate friends online. The goal is display content online which is extracted from emotional texts they post in online social media networks. The concern is to express the text which matches to the writer’s emotions. For this purpose text mining techniques are performed on comments grasped from a social media network. The process comprises a model for database schemas, data collection, processing and mining steps. The main point of consideration is the use of informal language of online social networks, before performing text mining techniques. The technique assumes is unsupervised; k-means clustering algorithm is mainly used. To determine subjectivity of text and predicting friends in social media high accuracy is expressed.


No of Downloads : 12

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Sheetal H. Maheshwari, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Mr.Haresh D. Chande, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera,, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Image restoration, Noise, Filter, Convolution, algorithms

Abstract :


Image Restoration is the operation of taking a corrupt/noisy image and estimating the clean, original image. Corruption may come in many forms such as motion blur, noise and camera mis-focus. The main aim of image restoration is to expand the appearance of image, provide the image more advanced and remove the noises, missing pixels, degradations from that image. This review paper is based on the analysis of 15 research papers specially focused on image restoration. Authors have identified various methods used for image restoration for ex; convolution and deconvolution methods, algorithms, blurring, deblurring and filtering techniques.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Rinki R Chauhan, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Kumar Parmar, HJD Institute of Technical Education and Research-Kera, Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Cryptography, Near Field Communication (NFC), security, RFID, Tag.

Abstract :


Near Field Communication (NFC) was proposed for the purpose of security, ease of use and popularity. NFC can be called subset of RFID and it has shorter communication range comparatively. NFC tags are small objects in which we can store information. NFC compatible smart phones and similar devices can read/write/alter information stored in tags when passed over NFC tags. This work presents NFC Tag system which is a combination of Analog and Digital system. Digital part of system consist of micro-controller to execute complex instructions, framing logic (FL) for data transmission, to store data- a memory unit and a crypto unit were cryptographic security algorithms are implemented. This proposed work is to enhance memory utilization, power consumption and delay which are some important factors should be taken into consideration with hardware based system.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mr.Kishan R. Katariya, HJD Institute of technical Education & research-Kera,, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Kelvin M. Manavar, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


1-phase H-bridge, Multilevel inverter, Control strategy, MATLAB, THD.

Abstract :


Inverter is power converter device that is used to convert DC power to AC power with desired voltage and constant or variable frequency. The number of topologies used in multilevel inverter. Conventional inverters uses foremost 3 topology named (i) Diode Clamped Inverter (DCI or NPC), (ii) Flying Capacitor Inverter (FCI) & (iii) Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter (CHB). In this paper proposed configuration of MLI uses less number of switches in H-Bridge arrangement with conventional PWM control technique. In this paper the new configuration design of single phase MLI is given, and it is simulated on computer based program MATLAB/SIMULINK software.


No of Downloads : 1

Author (s) :


1). Mr.Anup Jha, HJD Institute of technical Education & research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Muzzle velocity, AFV

Abstract :


Effective fire power has been considered as one of the prime requirement of Future Main Battle Tank. This is mainly controlled by projectile muzzle velocity and its impact energy on the target, rate of fire of the gun towards the target, accuracy in firing and time of flight. This requirement can be systematically tailored by introducing a suitable gun propulsion concept which can be able to launch a projectile with hyper velocities. It is now a globally accepted fact that, gun performance with conventional propulsion techniques is limited to the velocities of 1.6 km/s to 1.7 km/s, with this, desired muzzle energies required for Future Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV) cannot be achieved. Hence, introduction of new concept of propulsion with the acceptable constraints of firing platforms are therefore essential. It is therefore necessary to initiate work in this area at the earliest to meet the requirements of FMBT.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Mr.Jaykumar Someswar, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Kelvin M. Manavar, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


What are power quality & problems in domestic and industrial?, Electrical Standard IEEE 519, Introduction of converter & method which is improving power quality, Advantage of improved power quality converter or FACTS.

Abstract :


Now a days a power quality issue is become major problems in domestic as well in industry also, poor electrical power is cause heating in equipment and consume more power during their operations. This phenomena is also damage the equipment those are connected at PCC (point of Common coupling), an industries are using VFD, LED, RECTIFIER, SMPS, CHARGING STATION, Etc, due to these power converter quality is somehow disturbed in AC transmission, as involvement of power converter in FACTS and its more popular method in this era to transmit AC power to other places. So its demands a improved power quality with less conduction losses in copper. For that Multilevel converter (Inverters) are used. It will reduce power losses and maintaining power quality with gird connected system. There are many methods are involve in inverter, few are taken as case study in this research work, and developing a method toward the best control technique for harmonic reduction in MATLAB simulation.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Megha B. Gor, HJD Institute of technical Education & research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


solar energy, solar cell, MPPT, Different Techniques, Comparison, Review

Abstract :


Need of electricity is increasing day by day. In all the domains electricity required more as per their applications. Reduction in need of fuel is possible with converting solar energy into electrical energy. Cost and efficiency of the solar cell is very less so it is difficult to use in different electrical applications. But efficiency of solar cell can be improved with the help of maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Various six MPPT Techniques are discussed in the paper. Comparison between algorithms is also described in this paper.


No of Downloads : 7

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Aboti Ashish N, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Maheshwari.Naresh.H, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Introduction, UPFC,Literature Survey, Summary

Abstract :


When Power Transmission network was open marketed, so many problems were raised in transmission network—likes losses is increased and low voltage raised at different location. So minimization of losses and improve voltage are major issue in power transmission network. We can minimized losses by means of Reactive power compensation .in early mechanical system were used. In this system series, shunt capacitor and synchronous generator were also used, it’s desired response not effective and slow response. Now day’s Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS) is used and different methods are used likes Practical swarm optimization (PSO), Genetic algorithms, Harmony Search algorithms, Ant Bee colony, Differential evolution, Firefly etc. This various techniques will used and improved voltage profile and minimization of losses in power transmission line.


No of Downloads : 2

Author (s) :


1). Mr.Bharat Fultariya, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Introduction, ATC, Congestion, DCPTDF

Abstract :


In deregulated power system, Congestion is a prime problem which creates considerable impact on the power system performance. Known value of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) helps to alleviate problem of congestion by giving power transfer capability available in the system for a particular transaction. The work presented in this paper has implemented DCPTDF (DC Power Transfer Distribution Factor) based method for ATC calculation.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Anand. J. Ramanuj, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Vikash. R. Chavda, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
3). Mr.Kevel. K. Maheshwari, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
4). Mr.Vershi. K. Maheshwari, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


EM Rail, Magnetic Field

Abstract :


An electromagnetic rail system is the system which launches the projectile using convert electrical energy into kinetic energy. The electromagnetic rail system is consist two parallel conducting rails this two rails are electromagnetic rails. The simply an electromagnetic rail system is a system which launches the projectile using magnetic fields and current instead of conventional source. In recent years the many advantages in electromagnetic propulsion technology have occurred. For low velocity and high mass application linear motor is being developed for missile and space launchers. For large velocities, experimental rail system have verified launches speeds of 180km/h and system or schnozzle drives greater than 10 MJ. An electromagnetic rail system idea is defined here a machinery growth problems and recognize. This paper provides an overview of these concepts and contain a summary of the recent benefits made in this zone.


No of Downloads : 4

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Kaushik. B. Gondaliya, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mr. Raj. K. Parmar, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
3). Mr.Kishan. J. Thacker, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Grounding, Design, Characteristics, Fault current, Rated voltage, Classifications

Abstract :


The review Paper give information about type of ground according system application. The importance of a noble grounding design is also described. This detail taken from IEEE standard 80. The main focus of this paper is to study all basic neutral grounding techniques and based on that to apply proper grounding technique on the basis of special requirements or specific advantages. The growing stage of power system will require some advance neutral grounding techniques because with advancement in power system equipment and control strategies it is possible to make some effective neutral grounding system which might have most common all grounding characteristics in one scheme and can give better operational performance in some special cases of power system phenomenon.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Ms. Hinal. S. Prajapati, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Ms. Muskan. H. Arab, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
3). Mr.Kishan. J. Thacker, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Power factor, Microcontroller, Capacitors, CT and PT, Detector, Penalty

Abstract :


There are many inductive loads in industries. Hence the power factor was reducing because of inductive reactive power. But our electrical board has some limit for power factor and below this limit the company gave penalty to industry. By determine the delay time of the current signal with voltage signal the APFC(Automatic power factor compensation) device read reading .Then the microcontroller programing calculate the capacitor required for compensation and switch on the capacitor banks.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mrs. Khusali. Thacker, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mrs.Barnali. H. Karelia, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Types of Loads, Types of Faults, Power Quality, IEEE-519, STATCOM, Hysteresis Current Control.

Abstract :


With increasing demand in power consumption for domestic as well in commercial, Long and short transmission lines are developed more in this country. By this development in electrical transmission, losses and faults have become more prevalent at power supply source and consumer with grid connection. Hence it becomes more necessary to improve protection design in transmission and ultrafast systems for fault identification. Major faults damage grid connected customers as well and due to this damage and deteriorating supply quality customer satisfaction is significantly reduced. Degradation in quality of supply is caused by voltage sag-swell, harmonic distortion, and voltage imbalance, causing problems such as abnormal operation, system instabilities, and potential asset life reduction leading to potential failure of electrical equipment. Harmonic frequencies at which distortion occurs are the major cause of power quality issues Increasing harmonics distortion can be limited by active and passive filters in which passive filters have many disadvantages like resonance issue, improper selection of capacitor ratings and mostly larger losses in filter. Active filters are more in demand in which one of the methods suitable for protecting transmission lines is STATCOM with hysteresis current control which provides balanced power flow and reduction in harmonic distortion and power losses.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mr. Faizal. A. Khatri, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Mr.Kishan. J. Thacker, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Relay, Arduino, LCD, Transformer, Three phase supply.

Abstract :


Continuity of power supply is very important in over day to day life like in Industry, Hospital, colleges, schools, Domestic areas, offices etc. Phase fault is common and severe problem and due to this huge losses can face to the industry or any power consumers. This problem of phase fault can be overcome by using automatic phase selector and change over switch circuit. This circuit senses the healthy phase out of three phases at the time of the phase fault and change over the phase automatically; It also change over the generator if there is a fault in all the three phase of mains.


No of Downloads : 3

Author (s) :


1). Mr.Kishan. J. Thacker, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
2). Ms. Hinal. S. Prajapati, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India
3). Ms. Muskan. H. Arab, HJD Institute of technical Education & Research-Kera, kera, Gujarat, India

Keywords :


Relay, Arduino, LCD, Transformer, Three phase supply.

Abstract :


This paper gives the idea about Doubly Fed Induction Generator. As the name itself suggests this the equipment is fed from two sides i.e. from stator side as well as from rotor side. This idea is taken into account to extract maximum amount of energy from natural resource wind. Two back to back converters are used named as Grid Side and Rotor Side Converter. Whenever the wind speed is high it will directly supply from stator while if wind speed is low it will enhance itself from the rotor side. It is also verified in MATLAB software that even if wind speed is low there in no change in frequency and voltage. Waveforms are also shown. Microprocessor is also used.


No of Downloads : 3

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